The Double Minaret Madrasah
The Double Minaret Madrasah, also known as Hatuniye Madrasah, located in İçkale, is 35 × 48 m. It is the biggest Selcuklu madrasah in Anatolia with its dimensions. The building, whose construction date is unknown since it does not have an inscription, is probably due to the fact that the eastern wall also constitutes the fortress wall, and there are material and construction differences in masonry. It is believed that it was built on the ruins of a Saltuklu building belonging to the middle of the century and it was built as XIII. The late century is considered. While in a very dilapidated state IV. The building, which was repaired by Murad (1623-1640) and turned into a ball manufacturing factory, was later used as a madrasah, and was turned into a museum for a while during the Republican period; it is still empty.
The most striking side of the Double Minaret Madrasa, which has an important place in the Anatolian Turkish architecture, is the two-storey and four-iwan-madrasah type with open courtyards and two minarets rising on the buttresses attached to both sides of the crown gate. XIII. The elements such as fountains, niches and windows, which have been added to the facade composition of the madrasahs since the second half of the century, are also included in this building. In addition, although the side faces of the crown doors are not decorated in the Anatolian Seljuk architecture, it is observed that these madrasas were also decorated as an exception. The deep niche of the crown was framed with five lines of various width palmette motifs and covered with muqarnas. The muqarnas sherds are relatively plain and the sides of the door arch are completely undecorated, and there are no rib-shaped ornamental elements found in most Seljuk gates. The height of both minarets, which have been demolished above, from the base to the highest point, is 26 meters. The brick minarets are worn and the grooves between the wands are animated with triangular tiles, and the words “Allah”, “Muhammed” and the names of the four caliphs are written in blue tiles in highly decorated circles on the shoes. In the lower parts of the stone bases, four-sided, tree-shaped eagle motifs with a double-headed eagle motif at the top of the two dragons were engraved in a pointed arched niche framed by a thick sheath. The decorations in the minarets differ from each other in terms of details. The madrasah is generally quite ornate, but its decoration works are incomplete in some places. On the edges of the windows in the courtyard, the verses 256 of Bakara Sura and 18 and 19 of the Surah Al-Imran are written as reliefs.
The long rectangular courtyard with a size of 30.50 × 12.20 m, which is reached by passing through the pointed barrel vaulted entrance iwan, which forms a 5.20 m deep corridor, is surrounded by two storey porticoes sitting on fourteen columns with the help of pointed arches. In the parts facing the side iwans, the arches of the portico were made high up to the roof level like the iwans, so that the upper floor of the building was divided in half by the iwan openings in front of them; therefore, each section can be reached by a separate staircase. To the right of the entrance is 5.80 m. There is a square-shaped masjid covered with a dome, and there are a total of forty-two closed spaces; twenty downstairs and twenty two downstairs; all of these volumes are covered with barrel vaults.
Behind the main iwan, which is in ruins with its portico arch in front of it and the winter classrooms next to it, there is a cupola covered with a dodecagonal body built inside and outside adjacent to the building. The body of the cupola, the owner of which cannot be identified since it has no inscription, is decorated with intertwined round arches and ends with an extraordinarily rich fringed under fringe border; the cove is like a trunk, but is decorated with smaller and shallower arches. The funeral cellar has a cross-vaulted plan, cross-vaulted, and a mihrab-covered upper room with two stairs, inside is covered with a dome and the mosque has been turned into a mosque because there is no coffer.