Allianoi Ancient City
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Bergama is located at the junction point where the road from Ayvalık to Edremit Bay and Soma road descending to the north of Manisa are separated and dominates the fertile Bergama Plain.
Its waters are healing is a distinctive feature. For these reasons, it has settled in many phases of history, especially during the period when it came to the Kingdom of Pergamon and the Roman Empire with its will, it has experienced its most dazzling days.
In the mentioned periods, it has been enriched in terms of architecture. Due to its healing waters, it has gained a health center feature. The architecture consists mainly of bath buildings.
One of the remarkable centers in this region is Allianoi ancient healing center.
Allianoi is one of the thermal-based ancient healing centers in the Anatolian geography, which had its brightest days in the Roman period. Today, it is located on the 18th km of Bergama-Ivrindi Highway, in the Pasha Ilıcası area.
The Allianoi healing center was brought to light as a result of the sounding excavations initiated under the protocol of DSI with the Ministry of Culture, after the tender for the construction of the dam on Yortanlı stream in order to irrigate the Bergama Kinik Plain regularly.
Allianoi’s best-preserved spa in the world. 11 thousand coins, around 400 metal works, 400 bone works, 800 ceramic works, 400 glass works.
During the excavations carried out in the forest land in the west of Allianoi, a Yortan pot was found. Many flint stones were found on the skirts of Çakmak Tepe. Apart from this, two stone axes were found in the fill soil. Based on all this, it is believed to be a prehistoric settlement in Allianoi and its immediate surroundings.
It is believed that it was a small thermal center during this period due to hot water. Hot water was used from this period. Although only a few archaeological and numismatic works belonging to the Hellenistic Age were recovered, no Hellenistic architecture was found in the central settlement of Allianoi.
As in the cult center of Allianoi, during the Roman Imperial Period (2nd century AD), in many centers of Anatolia and Asclepieion in Pergamon, there was a great public works. Most of the existing buildings in the cult center belong to this period. In addition to the hot spring, bridges, streets, streets, insula (building island) transition structure, propylon (building door) and nympheum (fountain structure) belong to this period.
It is the period when a dense settlement is seen in Allianoi. However, as in Pergamon, an extremely weak period was experienced in socio-economic terms. The Byzantines, who started to live in the cult center, destroyed the sculptures and architectural remains belonging to the Roman Age and started to use them as spolia material. Using the bases of the stoas and main streets of the Roman Age, new simple spaces were built. The spa and nympheums, the most important structure of Allianoi, have continued to be used by making small changes in accordance with the needs.
In the basilical plan, a large church was built. Chapels were built in and around the settlement, and metal, ceramic and glass workshops were established during this period.
In the Ottoman period, Pasha Hot Spring passes in the Aydın yearbooks. However, it has not been used extensively. Because during the excavations, there are no traces other than a few coins of the Ottoman period. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ilıca was handled by the district governor Kemal Bey and the part of the large pool was partially re-opened. However, it is understood that the Roman bridge in the west of the hot spring was used between Bergama and İvrindi from the Ottoman period until 1979.
It is understood that it was partially cleaned at the beginning of the 20th century, but due to the flooding again, it was used in waste condition until the 1950s, and the part where the temperate was used was idle. In 1992, the existing and currently used Roman Bridge by the Regional Directorate of Highways was partially deformed by tender without a board decision and a new bridge was built. In the same year, the restoration of the hot spring was given to the tender by the İzmir Governor through the Special Provincial Administration. During the restoration process that lasted for a year, the interior of the spa was deformed without a decision of the board, and a modern building was built on it. It has been put into operation since that date, and with a heavy flood in February 1998, the facility has been rendered unusable. In the south of the stream, agriculture was made on the land owned by private individuals. A large part of the modern buildings added in these repairs were removed during the 2003 work and the ancient hot springs began to be unearthed.
The main architectural finds unearthed in the ancient center are:
- Ilıca (İ.S. II. Century)
- Decumanus (East-West Directional Street) (AD II. Century)
- Cardo (North-South Directional Street) (AD II. Century)
- Transition Structure (AD II. Century)
- West Bridge (2nd century AD)
- Nympheum (Çeşme) (İ.S yy.)
- Insulas (Building Islands) (AD II. Century)
- Cult Structure (İ.S. II.)
- Structures with Peristyl (İ.S. -III century)
- Latrins (Toilet) (AD II.-III. Century.